The Thar Desert is an extensive region of sandy desert located northwest of India and east of Pakistan. This desert borders to the northwest with the Sutlej river, to the east with the Aravalli mountain range, to the south with the salt water swamp known as Rann del Kachchh – or in English phonetics «Kutch» – and to the west with the plain of the Sind river (or )Ndo). Located mainly in the state of Rāyasthān, in India, the Thar desert has a length of around 805 km and a width of approximately 485 km.
The terrain is formed by rolling hills of sand, among which there is scattered vegetation and rocky elevations. The altitude varies between 457 m at the lowest peaks of the Aravallis, and 61 m near Rann de Kachch. The average rainfall, almost all in the form of showers, ranges between 127 and 254 mm per year during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise to 52.8 ° C in July. Since the second half of s. XX areas of the north and west of the desert have been recovered for agricultural use, especially thanks to the artificial irrigation canal called Indira Gandhi. The main activity of its small population is grazing; The leather and wool industries are important. In 1974 India detonated its first atomic bomb in the most unpopulated area of the Thar.
In this desert there are some of the last populations of Asiatic lion in the wild.